Safety
The new eCitaro fuel cell

Safety

The new eCitaro fuel cell from Mercedes-Benz impresses with its outstanding safety equipment. Innovative assistance and camera systems support the driver in critical traffic situations and thereby help to avoid accidents. The solid skeleton design offers all passengers reliable protection. In addition, there is a unique safety concept that covers all aspects of the high-voltage and fuel cell technology.

The safety of the eCitaro fuel cell does not consist of individual measures. Rather, they are based on Mercedes-Benz's comprehensive and integral safety concept. To increase active safety, Mercedes-Benz has equipped the eCitaro fuel cell with a wide range of safety features. Each eCitaro comes with innovative assistance systems that support driving personnel and reduce the risk of accidents. Mercedes-Benz provides you with turning assistant Sideguard Assist 2 and Frontguard Assist as standard as well as the active braking assistant Preventive Brake Assist 2 on request. Optionally available camera technology ensures more visibility and safety in the eCitaro fuel cell: The 360° camera system in the solo bus and the 270° system in the articulated bus provide greater orientation when manoeuvring. And the new MirrorCam offers a significantly larger field of vision for the driver when looking out of the side windows compared with conventional exterior mirrors. In terms of passive safety all occupants benefit from a particularly resistant framework structure in annular frame design. For the driver, a crash element has been integrated into the front end as additional collision protection.

When developing the eCitaro fuel cell, Mercedes-Benz also paid particular attention to the safety of the high-voltage and hydrogen systems. With tests on the cell, cell module, battery pack and the battery groups in the vehicle, the battery systems are extremely safe. All battery modules have been installed in a crash-proof manner and the high-voltage cables are well shielded. The batteries have been tested and certified in accordance with hazardous goods regulations. For the solo bus and articulated bus, Mercedes-Benz has also paid attention to optimum weight distribution for safe driving. The batteries are therefore distributed in and around the vehicle according to a sophisticated system. The fuel cell system itself is completely housed on the roof and thus optimally protected even in the event of an accident. With an inner container made of plastic and an outer sheath made of carbon fibre, the hydrogen tanks correspond to the so-called Type 4, are both lightweight and highly durable as well as certified in accordance with ECE R 134. Each individual tank also has its own pressure and temperature sensor. The fuel cell is reliably supplied with hydrogen from the high-pressure tanks by a low-pressure line. During refuelling, the drive system is automatically switched off, reliably preventing accidental departure or rolling away. For greater safety, the high-pressure lines (350 bar) for refuelling are rigid and protected against external influences.

The modern MirrorCam system provides a clear and full view of the road traffic. Equipped with high-resolution cameras, the driving safety is improved and the risk of accidents is minimised. The extended field of vision enables the driver to see pedestrians, cyclists and other road users in the surrounding area. This eliminates the blind spot when turning right.

Depending on the vehicle, the images are displayed on 7" and 15" monitors. The two high-resolution displays show the different fields of vision. The photodiodes integrated in the monitors detect the incident light and adjust the brightness of the respective monitor individually. To make it easier for the driver to evaluate the images, the 15" variants have three different guide lines. Together with the permanently calibrated vehicle end line, the distance line assists the driver in assessing approaching objects. The Overtaking Assist overlay is activated from a speed of 10 km/h with flashing, in order to safely assist overtaking or turning. In addition, the display for Blind Spot Assist is installed in the monitor.

The innovative Traffic Sign Assist offers maximum safety and comfort on the road. Thanks to GPS and camera support, the vehicle speed is constantly compared with the current traffic regulations.

The system is designed to provide dedicated and appropriate feedback if the permitted speed is exceeded. Thanks to the state-of-the-art instrument cluster, the driver receives both visual and audible signals that immediately draw attention to the speed.

Traffic Sign Assist (TSA). The new eCitaro fuel cell
Sideguard Assist 2.

Sideguard Assist 2 is a safety assistance system that supports the driver in critical situations when turning right or turning left when visibility is possibly restricted. The system is designed to help detect moving obstacles within the system limits, and warns the driver so as to avoid critical situations or reduce the consequences of accidents when turning off or changing lanes.

The side areas of the vehicle are constantly monitored. As a result, vehicles, pedestrians or cyclists who may be in the blind spot are detected on both the front passenger side and the driver’s side. The radar system precisely detects the movements and warns the driver of possible collisions. The intuitive user interface and clear warnings allow the driver to drive safely and relaxed.

Exemplary safety even in unforeseen traffic situations - the electro-pneumatic service brake system (EBS) achieves shorter braking distances and less brake wear. The electro-pneumatic service brake system (EBS) increases road safety by improving braking stability and reducing braking distances.

Due to the electronic control of the EBS brake components, significantly shorter response times are achieved at the brake cylinders. The system distributes the brake pressure optimally to all axles, thereby ensuring the best possible braking effect. In the unlikely event of an electronic system failure, a dual-circuit pneumatic redundancy is available. This will still bring the coach safely to a halt. As a further development of the conventional air brake, the EBS offers numerous advantages. When braking, the control unit first activates the continuous brake (retarder and/or engine brake). If greater retardation is required, the control unit uses the information in the data network to determine the optimum braking pressure for every axle. The electropneumatic brake system enables shorter braking distances compared to a pneumatic brake system as well as significantly less brake disc and lining wear due to the integration of the continuous brakes described above.

The wireless tyre pressure monitoring with indication in the multifunctional display is an electronic safety system that permanently monitors the air pressure of all tyres. Tyre pressure losses are displayed within the system limits.

The right tyre pressure contributes to driving safety and significantly reduced fuel consumption. Even a tyre pressure set 0.5 bar too low can increase fuel consumption by up to 5%. The wheel electronics are positioned on the valve on the inside of the rim. The sensors record the data relevant to the tyre pressure and transmit it to the display instrument.

The vehicle is optionally equipped with long-life LED headlights. The light beam can be defined very accurately. The colour of the light is approximately the same as daylight, therefore the driver's eyes tire less quickly. More brightness and longer range provide additional safety.

The low beam and high beam benefit from the outstanding luminous efficacy of the integral LED headlights, which also use significantly less energy than standard lights. They provide broad and precise illumination of the road. Another safety benefit is the temperature of the light, which is similar to that of daylight and makes the eyes tire less quickly. The LED lights assure a long service life and low degradation (decrease in luminosity).

The light cone of the LED headlights is precisely defined. More brightness and longer range provide additional safety. LED lamps are about two to three times more efficient than conventional incandescent lamps.

The new eCitaro fuel cell

The LED cornering light is an additional safety function that is automatically activated by setting the turn signal or the steering angle. The driver only notices that the side front area is temporarily more illuminated to the vehicle when turning. This gives the driver better visibility when turning, in driveways and in tight curves.

Up to 15 mph (25 km/h), the function is activated by the turn signals. Up to 25 mph (40 km/h), this is done by turn signal and/or steering angle. The cornering light is activated depending on the steering angle and speed.

The LED fog lights provide greater safety through improved visibility in poor visibility conditions. They also use significantly less energy than the conventional incandescent lamps. The fog lights also serve as cornering lights.

In this case, the fog light switches on automatically when turning. The LED lights assure a long service life and low degradation (decrease in luminosity).

The 360° camera system consists of four cameras that capture the immediate vehicle environment and generate an indirect all-round view. The associated 10" screen is located on the A-pillar above the cockpit. This system allows pedestrians, cyclists and obstacles to be seen even in areas that are otherwise not visible to the driver. In this way, the system increases road safety, as collision hazards can be detected and, at best, prevented.

The 270° camera system consists of three cameras that capture the rear part of the vehicle and create an indirect view. This is displayed on a 10" screen, which can be located in different positions in the cockpit depending on the vehicle. Thanks to this system, pedestrians, cyclists and obstacles can also be seen in areas that are difficult for the driver to see. This way the system increases road safety as a possible collision can be detected and, at best, prevented.

With Preventive Brake Assist 2, Daimler Buses offers the second generation of Active Brake Assist. The system warns of collisions with moving pedestrians and cyclists as well as stationary and moving objects. In the event of a serious risk of collision, the driver is alerted by a visual and acoustic warning and partial braking is initiated automatically.

Warning cascade and braking intervention are specifically designed for use in urban traffic. In the event of an impending collision with pedestrians or cyclists as well as with moving or stationary objects, Preventive Brake Assist 2 issues a warning. The driver is warned both visually by a flashing red triangle in the central display and acoustically, and simultaneously initiates partial braking. This braking intervention is maintained either until the driver intervenes, the situation is no longer critical, or the bus comes to a stop.

Thanks to the interaction of front radar, short-range radar and the front camera, the area up to 250 metres in front of the bus is constantly scanned. This assistance is ensured up to a speed of 60 km/h. In snow, rain, fog, heavy spray, glare/dazzling conditions, direct sunlight or constantly changing light conditions, the system range and detection of vehicles and people may be impaired.

The rain sensor and automatic driving light are assist systems that activate automated functions by means of a sensor system and relieve the driver of routine tasks.

The rain sensor increases traffic safety, especially when driving in convoys, through individually adjustable, automated wiping functions.

The windscreen wiper flat blade system with integrated screen wash supply in the wiper blade distributes cleaning fluid through several nozzles directly over the wiper blades on the windscreen.

With its innovative profile, the flat wiper blade ensures that screen wash is evenly distributed on the windscreen. This increases comfort, saves screen wash and, due to the considerably better cleaning action, also ensures optimum visibility – ultimately a plus for safety.

The Eco Driver Feedback assistance system evaluates the driver’s personal driving style based on numerous parameters and provides the driver with individual feedback and suggestions. This means there is always a virtual co-driver to encourage an economical driving style.

The system is activated automatically at the start of a journey. It can store the driving data of two driver cards; if a third driver is added, the data of the first driver is deleted. In the process, information about the uniformity of the journey, use of the continuous brake and accelerator pedal as well as the deceleration and stopping behaviour of the driver is stored. The information can be viewed in the operating menu/assistance systems. The stored data can be reset manually by the driver.

The Electronic Stability Program (ESP®) significantly reduces the risk of the vehicle skidding and tipping over by selectively braking individual wheels or by braking the vehicle as a whole.

High-performance electronics monitor the signals from the ESP® sensors and constantly determine whether the steering commands of the driver match the actual movements of the vehicle. If the values deviate from one another, the system decreases the engine torque to restore stability to the vehicle. If this is not sufficient, it also brakes individual wheels or the entire vehicle. The driver’s request for deceleration is observed at all times.

The rear view camera increases safety when manoeuvring. When reverse gear is engaged, the field of view of the rear camera is shown on a separate monitor. This means that pedestrians, cyclists and obstacles can be seen in this area which is otherwise not visible to the driver.

The reversing camera is mounted in the centre of the rear of the vehicle. at the driver's position, the image is displayed on a separate monitor.

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